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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, ISLAMABAD RULES FOR SECTION OFFICERS PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION (SOPE), 2015

FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, ISLAMABAD RULES FOR SECTION OFFICERS PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION (SOPE), 2015

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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, ISLAMABAD
RULES FOR SECTION OFFICERS PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION (SOPE), 2015
NOTIFICATION
Islamabad, the 18th May, 2015
SRO No.418(I)/2015.— “In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-rule(2) of Rule 3 of the
Civil Servants (Appointment, Promotion and Transfer) Rules, 1973 and Section 7(1)(b) (i) and
(ii) of FPSC Ordinance, 1977 (XLV of 1977), the Chairman, FPSC in pursuance of Section 7-
A of FPSC Ordinance, 1977, and with the approval of the Federal Government has made, in
supersession of all earlier Rules for Section Officers Promotional Examination, the Section
Officers Promotional Examination Rules, 2015 for regulating and conduct of said examination
from time to time.”
No. F.7/1/2014-SOPE. 1(i) The Section Officers Promotional Examination shall be
conducted by the Federal Public Service Commission for selection of Section Officers against the
number of vacancies as advertised by the Commission as and when such requisition is received
from the Establishment Division.
ii) The Section Officers Promotional Examination shall comprise of the following
components:-
(a) Written Examination
(b) Psychological Assessment and
(c) Viva Voce
iii) The Examination shall be held on the dates as advertised by the Commission.
iv) The Examination shall be held simultaneously at Islamabad, Rawalpindi,
Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta.
v) Place for Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce.–Psychological
Assessment and Viva Voce shall be held only at FPSC HQs, Islamabad or
Provincial Headquarters depending upon the number of qualified candidates
at the respective centres.
vi) The Commission reserves the right to finally decide and notify the places
of Examinations/Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce.
vii) No request for change of centre shall normally be entertained. When a
candidate, however, desires to change his/ her centre, from one indicated in
his/ her Application Form for the Examination, he/ she should make a written
request to this effect to the Secretary, FPSC, Islamabad and send it by
registered post, as soon as possible but not later than 15 days prior to conduct
of examination giving full justification as to why he/ she desires to do so.
Such request will be considered only on merit.
2. Cut off date to determine eligibility.–The closing date for submission of applications as
advertised by the Commission shall be the cut off date to determine the eligibility in terms of
length of service and age of the candidate, etc.
3. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA.–Following shall be the criteria to be eligible for
applying/appearing in SOPE:
(1) EDUCATION
i) A candidate must hold at least a Second Class or Grade “C” Bachelor’s
degree in any faculty from one of the Pakistani Universities or an equivalent
degree or comparable educational qualifications of a foreign University
recognized by Higher Education Commission, Islamabad.
ii) A candidate who has obtained a Third Division (or ‘D’ grade) in his/her
Bachelor’s degree will be eligible for the Examination in cases where he/she
has obtained a higher Division in Master’s Degree.
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iii) The matter as to which foreign degree is comparable and equivalent to
corresponding Pakistani degree shall be decided by HEC. Therefore, an
equivalence certificate issued by HEC may be attached with application
form.
(2) AGE-LIMITS
A candidate for admission to the examination must have attained the minimum age of 30
years on the closing date for receipt of application as advertised by the Commission.
(3) AGE-RELAXATION
No age relaxation shall be allowed in any case.
(4) DATE OF BIRTH
The date of birth accepted by the Commission shall be that entered in the following
documents, however the decision as to which certificate shall be accepted rests with the
Commission:-
i) Matriculation Certificate;
ii) Secondary or Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate;
iii) Certificate of birth from the Principal/Headmaster of the School from
where a candidate has passed his/her GEC, ‘O’ level or equivalent
examination showing the date of birth in the School Admission Register;
iv) In case of Christian candidates, Baptismal or birth registration certificate
v) Authenticated by service record.
(5) LENGTH OF SERVICE
(i) Eight (08) years regular service in BS-11 to BS-16 in President’s Secretariat,
Prime Minister’s Secretariat, Senate Secretariat, National Assembly
Secretariat, Federal Secretariat, Attached Departments, Wafaqi Mohtasib’s
Secretariat, Federal Service Tribunal, Federal Public Service Commission,
Intelligence Bureau and also the Civilian Employees of Pakistan Armed Forces
Headquarters and their lower formations.
(ii) Length of service as at (i) above means regular service acquired before or
after obtaining the required educational qualification as given at Rule-3 (1) (i)
and (ii) above.
(6) INELIGIBILITYWITH RESPECT TO SERVICE
The employees of the following offices/categories shall not be eligible to apply/
appear for SOPE.
i) All Subordinate Offices such as Customs/Central Excise & Income Tax including
field offices of the FBR.
ii) Accountants General in the Provinces.
iii) AJK Council.
iv) Provincial Governments, Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
Governments.
v) Election Commission of Pakistan
vi) Federal Shariat Court
vii) Semi Government., Autonomous Bodies, Corporations and Regulatory
Authorities
viii) Strategic Organizations such as PAEC, KRL, AWC and others.
ix) The employees working below BS-11 and those who are placed in BS-17 on
regular basis.
x) The employees mentioned at (i) to (viii) working on deputation basis in
Federal Government.
xi) Other departments which have not been declared as attached departments in
terms of Schedule III of Rules of Business, 1973.
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4. SUBMISSION OF APPLICATION AND ADMISSION TO THE EXAMINATION
(1) All applications for Section Officers Promotional Examination must be submitted on line
through FPSC website www.fpsc.gov.pk, on or before the closing date for receipt of
applications as advertised by FPSC.
(2) Print out of the duly filled Online Form (i.e. Hardcopy) may be obtained and after signing it,
copies of all documents/certificates (as mentioned at sub rule-7) may be attached with it and
furnished to FPSC so as to reach the FPSC (Headquarters) within 10 days of the closing date.
Preferably, the hardcopies may be dispatched or furnished before the closing date so that
delay in transit may be avoided. Onus of proof of dispatch of hardcopy of online form and
documents, before the closing date, shall solely lie on the candidate.
(3) Candidates are cautioned that if an online application is received incomplete or wrongly filled
in or its hardcopy not accompanied with any one of the documents mentioned at sub-rule (7),
it will be rejected.
(4) Hardcopy of the online application, if reached to FPSC after the stipulated period of 10
days from the closing date, it shall not be accepted and online form already submitted to
FPSC shall stand rejected.
(5) The hard copy of the online form shall have the same entries as made in the online form
submitted to FPSC, and any variation shall cause rejection of candidature.
(6) No plea that hardcopy of online application form or any document attached with it has
been lost or delayed in the post shall be entertained.
(7) The candidates must send the following documents with their duly signed Applications, else
their applications shall be rejected:-
(i) Recent 4 photographs (attested on back side, mentioning name and father’s
name).
(ii) Attested copy of Computerized National Identity Card.
(iii) Attested copy of Matriculation Certificate showing date of birth. Provisional
Certificate/Result Card/Marks Sheet is not acceptable.
(iv) Attested copy of Intermediate Certificate. Provisional Certificate/Result
Card/Marks Sheets is not acceptable.
(v) Attested copy of Degree(s) alognwith Detailed Marks Sheets issued by the
Controller of Examination.
(vi) Attested copy of self Domicile Certificate.
(vii) Copies of Notification(s)/ Office Order(s) of each appointment/promotion as
claimed
(viii) Departmental Permission Certificate (DPC) as per Annex-A of Application
Form, for proof of working in Ministry/Division/Attached Department in
terms of Rules of Business, 1973.
(ix) In case of civilian employees of Armed Forces Headquarters and their lower
formations, attested copy of Office Order/Notification (mentioning detail of
offices and lower formations) issued by the of Defence Division, as a proof.
5. NUMBER OF ATTEMPTS
(1) A candidate may avail maximum three attempts of the examination after attaining the
minimum age of 30 years on the closing date advertised by the Commission.
(2) The 1st attempt of examination shall be counted w.e.f. first Section Officers Promotional
Examination held under these Rules.
(3) A candidate shall be deemed to have attempted the examination and his chance shall
stand consumed, if he/she actually appeared in any one or more papers of the
examination and even if he/she tendered blank Answer Book/Sheet and even if rejected
subsequently.”
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(4) A candidate who conceals the number of previous attempts, shall be prosecuted
leading to his/her disqualification in accordance with Rule-17 of these Rules.
6. DISABLE CANDIDATES
(1) Disabled candidates viz visually impaired (Blind) and physically impaired shall be
provided computer/helper(writer), if they have been declared permanently incapacitated
with respect to writing by the Federal/Provincial Council for Rehabilitation of Disabled
Persons, and a certificate in this regard has been attached by them with application form
and also requested for provision of computer/helper in their application form, the FPSC
shall arrange the helper from within the available staff of FPSC deputed at the
examination centre. The role of the helper would merely be to reproduce in writing the
words so uttered by the disabled candidate. No intellectual contribution by the helper is
permissible. The educational level of the helper shall be Graduate/Intermediate/
matriculate as per availability at the examination centre. No request for choicest helper or
venue of the examination shall be entertained. The disabled candidate alongwith helper
shall remain within the examination hall till conclusion of the paper.
(2) Extra time of 15 minutes per hour shall only be allowed to visually impaired (Blind)
candidates. The other categories of disabled candidates shall not be allowed any extra
time.
(3) A disabled candidate referred to in sub-rule (1) and (2) may attempt the question paper
on computer for which facility shall only be provided at FPSC HQs and FPSC’s
Provincial Offices. However, no TA/DA shall be admissible. Such Computer literate
candidates must fill the relevant entries in the online Application Form, else they shall
not be allowed to attempt the paper on computer.
7. WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(1) The medium of the Examination shall be English.
(2) The Examination shall be passed by a candidate as a whole and not in parts.
(3) Subjects for the Section Officers Promotional Examination shall comprise of
compulsory papers of 450 marks and optional papers of 200 marks as prescribed in
Appendix-1.
(4) Optional Subjects must be selected carefully. Candidates are cautioned that wrong
selection of subjects shall lead to rejection under rule-4 (3) above and para (2) of
Appendix-1.
(5) Combination of optional subjects once chosen at the time of submission of online
application shall not be allowed to change subsequently. Change of optional
subjects in hard copy of online form shall also not be allowed.
(6) For whatsoever reasons, a candidate who misses any compulsory or optional papers of
written examination for medical or any other reasons shall not be allowed to appear in
the remaining papers.
(7) If a candidate misses a paper for any reason, separate examination in that paper
shall not be arranged for him/her.
8. ADMISSION TO EXAMINATION
(1) No candidate shall be admitted to the examination hall who does not hold a certificate
of admission issued by the Commission and Original CNIC. An admission certificate
generated or down loaded from FPSC website shall be accepted. Intimation about
examination centre and Roll No. may be down loaded from FPSC website, if not
received through post.
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(2) A candidate who arrives at examination hall/centre late than the time mentioned
in Admission Certificate & date sheet, he/she shall not be allowed to sit in the
examination.
9. EFFECT OF INELIGIBILITY
(1) Candidates will be admitted to the examination provisionally at their own risk subject
to their being found eligible in all respects. On detailed scrutiny of the applications
after the announcement of result of the written part of the examination, if any
candidate is found ineligible in any respect under these rules for the examination
his/her candidature shall be cancelled/ rejected regardless of the fact whether he/she
has appeared in the examination or qualified therein.
(2) The result of any candidate, whose candidature is rejected on any ground, shall not be
declared, irrespective whether he/she, failed/passed the examination
Note: To avoid “INCONVENIENCE”, candidates are advised in their own interest
to make sure before appearing at the examination that they fulfill all requirements of
the rules, relating to the examination.
10. QUALIFYING MARKS IN WRITTEN EXAMINATION
(1) A candidate who fails to secure at least 40% marks in any of the compulsory
subject/paper and 40% marks in any of the optional subject/paper and 50% marks in
the Aggregate shall be considered to have failed in written examination and shall not
be eligible for Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce.
(2) No grace marks shall be allowed.
(3) Only those candidates who are declared qualified in written examination and found
eligible in all respects shall be called for Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce.
11. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
All candidates called for Viva Voce shall be required to undergo Psychological Assessment,
comprising written tests and group tasks. Such tests are designed to assess abilities, attitude and
personality characteristics of the candidates with special regard to their aptitude for the Civil
Services. Separate marks are not awarded for the Psychological Assessment. However, 200 marks
assigned to Viva Voce also reflect the performance on Psychological Assessment. Candidates
must bring their National Identity Cards and two copies of recent photographs when summoned
for Psychological Assessment. If a candidate remains absent in the Psychological Assessment,
he/she shall not be allowed to appear for Viva Voce.
12. VIVA VOCE
(1) There shall be a Viva Voce of 200 marks.
(2) Each candidate who is declared qualified in written part of the examination shall
be interviewed by a Board which shall have before them a record of his/her career,
both academic and extramural. He/she shall be asked questions on matters of
general interest. The object of the interview is to assess his/her suitability for the
services for which he/she is entered and in framing their assessment, the Board
shall attach particular importance to the moral and ethical qualities of the
candidates, his/her intelligence and alertness of mind, his/her vigor and strength of
character and his/her potential qualities of leadership, knowledge and analytical
abilities. The Board shall take into consideration his/her extramural activities such
as sports, debates, hobbies, etc., and their effect on his/her physique and character,
in assessing his/her merit.
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(3) All candidates are expected to have basic knowledge regarding Islam, Pakistan and
Current Affairs. Questions may be asked in the Viva Voce on these subjects.
Persons securing less than pass marks in these subjects shall not be considered for
appointment to Government jobs, irrespective of their proficiency in other fields.
However, the Non-Muslim candidates shall not be asked any question regarding
Islam.
(4) A candidate called for Viva Voce Test, shall be required to bring his/ her original
documents, CNIC and Admission Certificate on the date he/ she appears for Viva
Voce Test. These will be returned on the spot if found in order. Any document
found to have been tampered with, shall be liable to be retained and the candidate,
liable to be criminally prosecuted in addition to being permanently debarred from
the Commission’s Examinations and selections and from Employment under
Government.
(5) A candidate who fails to secure at least 50% marks in Viva Voce (i.e. 100 marks)
shall be considered to have failed and shall not be eligible for appointment.
13. DETERMINATION OF FINAL MERIT & ANNOUNCEMENT OF RESULT
(1) The candidates who qualify in written examination and Viva Voce, their final merit
shall be determined by adding marks obtained in the written examination and viva
voce.
(2) When total marks (written examination + viva voce) of more than one candidate are
equal, the one who gets more marks in viva voce shall be treated as higher in merit.
If marks in viva voce are also equal, the one who gets more marks in compulsory
subjects shall be treated as higher in merit. If marks in compulsory subjects shall be
also equal, the one who is older in age shall be treated as higher in merit.
(3) The candidates who pass the written examination shall be intimated individually as
well as through website but the candidates who fail in written examination shall not
be informed individually. They may download detail mark sheets from FPSC’s
website.
(4) Only FPSC is authorized to announce the result of the examination.
14. (1) The Government sometimes announces public holidays at a short notice. The FPSC
examinations/ interviews shall not be affected by such announcements, unless a decision on
postponement is conveyed to the candidates.
(2) The Commission reserves the right to change the schedule of the Examination as well as to
cancel any paper(s) or the Examination without assigning any reason.
15. Appointment.—(1) The candidates securing highest places on the combined results of the
Written Examination, Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce and eligible for appointment
shall be recommended by the Commission in order of merit upto the number of advertised
vacancies.
(2) Success in the Examination confers no right to appointment, as the appointments are made by
the Government in accordance with the Civil Servants (Appointment, Promotion and Transfer)
Rules, 1973 and fulfillment of the required formalities.
16. Reserve Merit List/Alternate Nomination.— (1) Once the process of selection against
advertised vacancies is completed, the Commission shall maintain the Reserve merit list till
commencement of the Specialized Training Program (STP).
(2) In case a recommended candidate tenders his unwillingness to join the Specialized Training
Program (STP) to the Establishment Division and request of Establishment Division for alternate
nomination reaches to the Commission before the commencement of STP, the Commission shall
nominate the next candidate on merit from the reserve merit list against the vacancy.
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(3) The vacancies of a non-joiner, reported to the Commission after commencement of STP
shall not be entertained and carried over to next examination.
(4) On commencement of the STP, the reserve merit list shall no longer be valid and the process
of Section Officers Promotional Examination shall stand completed and closed.
17.Warning.—(1) A candidate who knowingly furnishes particulars which are false, or suppresses
material information, or attempts to influence the Commission, or officers or members of the staff
of the Commission, or tries to obtain support for his/her candidature by improper means, or
deliberately submits forged certificates, or tampers with the entries in his/her age, educational and
other certificates, or misbehaves in the examination hall or uses unfair means including use or
attempted use of mobile phone or other electronic device for copying, or is found guilty of
misconduct during Written Examination, Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce and uses filthy
and unethical language in the Answer Book(s)during written examination, may be disqualified for
this and/or subsequent examinations/selections held by the Commission and/or criminally
prosecuted and debarred from future and/or removal from existing employment under Government.
(2) If during the conduct of Examination at a centre/hall, any candidate is found in possession
of mobile phone or likewise devices, he/she shall be prosecuted under the rule-17(1).
(3) A candidate who, even after his/her appointment, is found to have knowingly furnished
particulars which are false, or to have suppressed material information shall be liable to dismissal
from Service.
18. Departmental Permission Certificate.– Departmental Permission Certificate (DPC) as at
Annex-A of the Application Form may be provided within 10 days of the closing date. However,
candidate shall submit an advance copy of application on prescribed form to FPSC on or before
closing date to avoid rejection due to delay that may occur in processing of DPC by the
Government channels.
19. Correspondence.– All correspondence may be addressed to Secretary, FPSC. Candidates
should not write their postal addresses care of Post Box Number etc. as Postal Authorities do not
accept registered letters for such an address. In all correspondence in connection with Applications,
(before receiving Roll Numbers) full name of candidates, CNIC number, contact number and
name of the post/examination applied for, should be mentioned.
20. Change of address shall be reported to the FPSC immediately.
21. Recounting.—Answer Books are secret documents and cannot, therefore, be permitted to be
seen by the candidates or their representatives nor re-examination of Answer Books/Scripts shall be
allowed under any circumstances. A candidate desirous of getting his/her marks, awarded by the
examiners re-counted may submit his/her request, so as to reach FPSC within thirty days of the date
of display on FPSC’s website/issue of Result Card/Marks Sheet/ alongwith a Treasury Receipt of
Rs.500/- per paper as fee for re-counting of marks only. No such request shall be entertained,
thereafter.
22. REPRESENTATION AND REVIEW PETITION
(1) A candidate aggrieved by any decision of the Federal Public Service Commission
may, within thirty days of communication of decision, make a representation to the
Commission and the Commission shall decide the representation within fifteen
days after giving the candidate a reasonable opportunity of hearing.
(2) A candidate aggrieved by the decision of the Commission made under sub rule (1)
may, within fifteen days of communication of decision, submit a review petition to
the Commission and the Commission shall decide the review petition within thirty
days under intimation to the petitioner. The decision of the Commission on review
petition shall be final.
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(3) Save as provided in “Federal Public Service Commission Ordinance, 1977”, no
order made or proceeding taken under “FPSC ORDINANCE, 1977”, or rules
made hereunder, by the Commission shall be called in question in any court and
no injunction shall be granted by any court in respect of any decision made or
taken in pursuance of any power conferred by, or under, “FPSC Ordinance, 1977”.
(4) Any candidate aggrieved by a decision of the Commission under sub-rule (2) may,
within thirty days of the decision, prefer an appeal to the High Court.
(5) Each representation and review petition duly signed shall be entertained only if
accompanied with Original Treasury Receipt of Rs.500/- in each case.
23. SPECIALIZED TRAINING PROGRAM
(1) The candidates recommended for appointment as Section Officer on probation
shall be required to undergo Specialized Training Programme (STP) having 600
Marks.
(2) The format and content of the Specialized Training Program shall be the same as
prescribed for officers of Office Management Group.
(3) Qualifying threshold in STP shall be 45 percent.
24. FINAL PASSING OUT EXAMINATION
(1) After successful completion of Specialized Training Programme (STP), the
probationers shall have to appear in the Final Passing Out Examination (FPOE)
of 1000 marks to be conducted by FPSC.
(2) The subjects/ papers and distribution of marks for FPOE shall be the same as
prescribed for officers of Office Management Group.
(3) Qualifying threshold in each paper and in aggregate for FPOE shall be 45%.
25. INTER-SE-SENIORITY.—For the purpose of determining the Inter-Se-Seniority of the
SOPE qualified and nominated candidates the marks obtained by a qualified candidate in
SOPE (Written Examination, Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce) held by the
Commission shall be added to the marks obtained by him/her in the Specialized Training
Program and the marks obtained in the Final Passing Out Examination in the first attempt.
26. APPLICATION OF RULES.—The Occupational Groups and Services (Probation,
Training and Seniority) Rules, 1990 and Occupational Groups and Services (Final Passing Out
Examination) Rules, 2003 shall be applicable mutatis mutandis, to the probationers of SOPE.
27. This issues with the concurrence of Establishment Division vide their letter No.
7/4/2014.T.V, dated 02-12-2014 and 22-4-2015 and FPSC as required vide Establishment
Division OM No.1/2/78-DV, date 27-8-1978.
SECRETARY
Appendix-1
SUBJECTS FOR WRITTEN EXAMINATION FOR SECTION OFFICERS
PROMOTIONAL EXAMINATION
(1) Compulsory Papers
(2) Optional Subjects/ Papers
Candidates are required to select two optional subjects, carrying 100 marks each, one from
each of the following Groups:
Code
No.
Group-1
Each subject carries 100 marks
Opt only one subject from this box
Code
No.
Group-2
Each subject carries 100 marks
Opt only one subject from this box
1 Accountancy and Auditing 8 Constitutional Law including Constitution of Pakistan
2 Basic Mathematics and Statistics 9 English Literature
3 Business Administration 10 Geography
4 Computer Science 11 History of Pakistan and India
5 Development Economics 12 History of USA
6 Economy of Pakistan 13 International Relations
7 Public Administration 14 Political Science
(3) Detailed contents of syllabus is available at Annex-I.
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Paper-I: Essay (50 Marks Time: 2 Hours)
Paper-III: General Knowledge
100 Marks Time: 03 Hours
i). Every Day Science (20 Marks)
ii). Islamiat (20 Marks)
iii). Pakistan Affairs (30 Marks)
iv). Current Affairs (30 Marks)
The Non-Muslim candidates have the option either to
take/attempt Islamiat portion of Paper-III or otherwise
the marks obtained by them in the portion of Pakistan
Affairs shall be treated as out of 50 marks in lieu of
both Islamiat and Pakistan Affairs.
Paper-II: English (Précis and Composition)
(100 Marks Time: 03 Hours)
Précis = 30 Marks
Comprehension = 30 Marks
Grammar = 40 Marks
Paper-IV: Specialized Paper for Office Management -I
100 Marks Time: 03 Hours
i). Human Resource Management (30 Marks)
ii). Basic Concepts of Quality Management (20 Marks)
iii). Information Technology and Use of MS Office (20 Marks)
iv). General Financial Rules Vol. I and Vol. II, System
of Financial Control and Budgeting, Role of Public
Accounts Committee. (30 Marks)
Paper-V: Specialized Paper for Office Management -II
100 Marks Time: 03 Hours
i). Civil Servant Act 1973 and Rules made there
under (20 Marks)
ii). Federal Public Service Commission Ordinance
1977 and Rules made there under (20 Marks)
iii). Rules of Business 1973 (20 Marks)
iv). Secretariat Instructions and Office Procedures
(20 Marks)
v). Public Sector Companies (Corporate Governance)
Rules 2013 (10 Marks)
vi). PPRA Ordinance and Rules 2004 (10 Marks)
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Annex-I
GUIDELINES OF THE SYLLABUS
Syllabi: The Syllabi for compulsory and optional papers shall be as under:
Paper-I: Essay: Candidates shall be required to write one or more essays in English from six
topics.
Paper-II: Grammar, Precis and Composition:
(i) Précis: Candidates should have the ability to present a précis of a given
passage which would be selected from current, economic, social, cultural
affairs
(ii) Comprehension: Two unseen passages from current, social, economic,
cultural, political or international affairs will be given with fixed reading time
and multiple choice questions will be asked to be answered.
(iii) Grammar, Vocabulary and Translation: The Candidates will be tested in
correct usage of English Grammar including synonyms and antonyms,
Vocabulary and Translation (English to Urdu and Urdu to English)
Suggested Readings:
English Idioms McMordie
Practical English Usage Swan (OUP)
A Practical English Grammar Thomson & Martinet
A University English Grammar R.Quirk & S.Greenbaum
Paper-III: General Knowledge:
(i) Every Day Science:
 Nature of Science, Brief History of Sciences with special reference to contribution
of Muslims in the evolution and development of science;
 Physical Sciences including Universe, Galaxy, Solar System, Sun, Earth and
Minerals, Energy—sources and resources of energy, energy conservation;
 Biological Sciences including basis of life, a brief history of plant and animal
kingdom
 Global warming and climate change.
Suggested Readings:
Principles of Animal Biology Khan M. Rafiq
Guide to Science Isaac Asimov
Exploring Life Sciences Tuber, Kilburn, Howell
(ii) Islamiat:
 Islam—Its concept and meaning, Islamic concepts of Universe and Humanity,
Man as Vicegerent of Allah, Main Characteristics of Islamic Ideology;
 Fundamental Beliefs and Practices of Islam: Tuheed (unity of Allah), Risalat
(Finality of Prohethood), Akhrat (Day of Judgement), Salat, Soum (Fasting),
Zakat, Hajj, Jehad;
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 Sources of Shariah: The Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma (Consensus), Qiyas and Ijtejad
(reasoning);
 Islamic Way of Life: (a) Social System in Islam (b) Morality in Islam (c) Islamic
Political system (d) Islamic Economic System (e) Islam and other Civilizations
(f) Islam and Terrorism
Suggested Readings:
Islami Nizam-e-Hayat Khurshid Ahmed
Islam: Its meaning and Message Khurshid Ahmed
Introduction to Islam Dr.Hamidullah
Haqeeqat-i-Deen Moulana Ameen Islahi
(iii) Pakistan Affairs:
 Ideology of Pakistan-Definition and historical aspects;
 Pakistan Movement and Political Developments since 1947
 Defense of Pakistan, Terrorism and Counter Terrorism
 Education and Health System of Pakistan
 Geography of Pakistan: Land, People, Natural Resources, Environment, Global
Warming and Natural Disasters, Languages, Ethnicity in Pakistan, Rural and
Urban Tensions
 Agriculture and Industry.
Suggested Readings:
Geography of Pakistan K.U.Kureshi
The Making of Pakistan K.K.Aziz
Ulema in Politics I.H.Qureshi
Ideological Orientation of Pakistan Al-Mujahid Sharif
Towards Pakistan Waheed-uz-Zaman
(iv) Current Affairs
 Pakistan’s relations with its neighbours: Afghanistan, Iran, China, and India;
 Pakistan’s relations with Muslim World
 Pakistan’s relations with the United States, Russia, United Kingdom and European
Union
 Pakistan’s relations with Central Asian, ASEAN and African Countries
 Pakistan’s role in Regional and International Organizations
 W.T.O and GSP Plus
 Issues in Pakistan Politics
Suggested Readings:
Politics in Pakistan Khalid B.Sayeed
Pakistan’s Foreign Policy S.M.Burke
Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Shahid M. Amin
Pakistan in 20th Century: A Political History Lawrence Ziring
The Military and Politics in Pakistan Hasan Askari Rizvi
The Security of South Asia Stephen P. Cohen
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Paper-IV: Specialized Paper for Office Management-I:
(i) Human Resource Management:
 Definition, Significance and Scope of Human Resource Management
 Organization—Types of Organization, Theory of Organization, Principles of
Organization, Organization of the Federal and Provincial Governments, Public
Sector Enterprises
 Approaches to Human Resource Management
 Personnel Administration—Tools of Personnel Management: Selection, Training,
Promotion, Compensation, Discipline
 Communication, Communication Channels and Principles of Public Relations
 Human Behaviour and Organizations
Suggested Readings:
Human Resource Management H.T.Graham & Roger Bennett
Management James A.F.Stoner, R.Edward
Freeman, Daniel R.Gilbert Jr.
(ii) Basic Concepts of Quality Management
 ISO-9000, ISO-13000, other certifications regarding quality measurement,
 Management, Management for Results, Setting Performance Goals and Targets,
 Job Analysis: Job Description, Job Specification, Performance Evaluation
Suggested Readings:
Quality Management Systems: A Practical Guide Howard S Gitlow
Quality Management – Principles & Practice Geoff Vorley & Fred Tickle
Putting Total Quality Management to Work Marshal Sashkin &
Kenneth J. Kiser
(iii) Information Technology and MS Office
 Fundamentals of Computer: CPU, Memory Devices, Types of Computers,
Characteristics of Computer and related material
 Application Software: Microsoft Word, Microsoft Power Point, Microsoft Excel
 Search Engines, Web Design, Email, Internet Surfing, Social Networking
(Facebook, Twitter, etc)
 General Introduction to Virus and Antivirus utilities
 Programming Languages
Suggested Readings:
Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow Deborah Morley, Charles Parker
MS Office Handbook
Optional Papers
1. Accountancy and Auditing
Principles of Accounting and their applications to all types of Business
Organizations—Banking, Insurance, Investment, Trading and Industrial Concerns,
Accounting for non-profit Organisations, Work-sheet, Financial statements, Financial
Reporting, Financial Analysis and Budgeting, Depreciation, Partnership.
13
Principles of Auditing, The Accounting System, Its importance to Independent
Audit, Internal Control, Internal Audit, Rights and Duties of Auditors. Professional
Liabilities of an Auditor, Application of Auditing Principles and Techniques to all
Types of Trading, Commercial, Industrial, Banking, Insurance and Investment undertakings,
Audit programme, Special Audit Investigation of actual or suspected Frauds,
Limitations of Audit, Audit Report, Certificates and Opinion as required under
Companies Act, Securities Exchange Authority Rules, Auditing and EDP Systems.
Suggested Readings:
Accountancy Pickles, W.
Principles and Practice of Book Keeping & Accounts Vickery, B.G.
Auditing Dicksee, L.R.
Companies Act 1984
Practical Auditing Spiecer and Pegler
Principles and Procedure of Auditing Kh. Amjad Saeed
2. Basic Mathematics and Statistics
A. Basic Mathematics
Order of Arithmetic Operations, Placing and Decimal Point, Computation, Significant
Digits, Weights, Measures, Directed Numbers, Operations with Zero and with One,
Simple Functions and their Graph Linear Equation, Ratios and Trigonometric
Functions, Linear Inter-polations Square Roots, Exponents and radicals, Permutations
and Combination. The Binomial Expansion, Mathematics Applied to Business
Operations. Murices. Differentiation.
B. Statistics.
Introduction- Nature of Statistics. Common Statistical Measures, and Samples,
Statistical Measures of Data Statistical-Description of Data, Probability. The
Binomial Distribution, Estimation of Parameters, Inference Concerning Two
populations. Correlation and Prediction, Simple Regression, Analysis of Variance,
Chi-Square, Index Number
Books Recommended:
Mathematics Essential for Elementary Latest Ed.: Walker, H.M.
Business Mathematics. Rosenberg, R.Lewis H.& Poe, R.W
Elementary Statistical Concepts. Walpole, R.T
Basic Statistics for Business and Economics Hoel, P.C.& Jessen, R.J.
Introduction to Statistics Steel, R.D. and Torrie, J.H
Business Statistics. Syed, N.A. and Gill, G.H.
Modern Elementary Statistics Freund, John E
Statistics for Business. Whitehead, P. and Whitehead, G.
3. Business Administration
Management: Nature And Scope of Management-Different Schools of thought,
Planning—Planning process; Planning tools; Change Management, Organization—
Type of Organization; Theory of Organization; Group dynamics ; Staffing;
Actuating—Leading; Approaches to Leadership—Coordinating; Communicating;
Motivating.
14
Marketing: An overview of Marketing; Marketing’s Role in Society and inside a
Firm; Environment of Marketing; Strategic Planning and Marketing;
Financial Management: Nature and Scope of Financial Management; Interpretation
of Financial Statement—Ratio analysis, Trend analy3sis—Common size analysis;
Time Value of Money—Concept of TVM; Net Present Value; Pay Back period;
Internal rate of return; Working Capital Management—Cash Management;
Receivable Management; Inventory Management; Accounting—Accounting Cycles,
Preparation of Financial Statements; Balance Sheet, Income Statement.
Suggested Readings
Management James A. F. Stoner & Charles Wank
Fundamentals of Marketing William J. Stanton
Fundamentals of Financial Management Van Horn
4. Computer Science
Operating System: Function/Types of operating system, Processes, Inter process
Communication/Synchronization/Co-ordination, Process Scheduling Policies, Virtual
Memory Management Techniques; Paging/Segmentation, File Management Systems.
Computer Networks: LAN/WAN/MAN, Communication channels, Internet,
Network layer structure, ISO Internet Protocol, OSI/TCP/IP reference model.
Structured and Object Oriented Programming: Basics of C/C++ environment,
memory concepts, operators, control structures, selection structures, Array &
functions/methods, classes & data Abstractions, inheritance and polymorphism.
Data Base Management: Data Models, E-R Models, Relational Database concepts,
SQL, Normalization, Database Design.
Web Programming: HTML, CGI, PERL, JAVA: Applet/Script, WWW, Web
based interface Design.
Computer Graphics: Fundamentals of input, display and hard copy
devices, scan conversion of geometric primitives, 2D and 3D geometric
transformations, clipping and windowing, scene modeling and animation,
algorithms for visible and surface determination.
Suggested Readings
Computer Concepts J.J.Parsond & D.Oja
Java Script: The Definitive Guide D.Flanagan
The HTML Source Book I.S.Graham
Computer Science: An Overview J. G. Brookshear
Java: An Object First Approach F. Culwin
Algorithms and Data Structures N. Wirth
Introduction to Database Systems C.J. Dat & Addison Wesley
Computer Networks S. Tanenbaum
Operating System Concepts Silberschatz & J. Peterson,
Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice Foley/Van Dam/ Feiner/Hughes
Computer networks and Internet D.E. Comer
Data Base Processing, Fundamentals-design Implementation David M. Kropnke
15
5. Constitutional Law including Constitution of Pakistan
 Constitutional Law—Principles of Constitutional Law with special reference to
United Kingdom, United States of America, Pakistan and India.
 Constitutional developments in Pakistan since 1947, 18th, 19th and 20th amendments
in the Constitution, Inter-Governmental Relationship: Political and fiscal including
National Finance Commission Award and Water Accord, Cabinet, legislative and
judicial system, fundamental rights, Principles of Policy, Provincial Autonomy,
Procedure for amending the constitution, control of natural resources, etc.
Suggested Readings:
Constitution of Pakistan Monir, M.
Constitutional Development of Pakistan Choudhry, A.G.
Governments and Parties in Continental Europe Lowell, A.L.
Introduction to the study of the Law of the Constitution Dicey
6. Development Economics
 Introduction, and Understanding Economic Development
 Theories of Economic Growth and Development
 The Structure of a Dual Economy, Rural-Urban Migration and Development
 Agricultural Transformation and Rural Development
 Population, Labour Markets, Income Distribution and Poverty Alleviation
 The Role of State and Institutions
 The Environment and Sustainable Development
 The Link between Trade and Development
 Foreign Aid, and Financing Development
 Microfinance and Micro-development topics
 Theory of Comparative costs, Arguments for Protection, Balance of payments,
International liquidity, International Money and Banking Institutions.
Suggested Readings:
Economic Development Todaro, Michael & Stephen Smith
Economics of Development Perkins, D.H., S. Radelet, D.R.
Snodgrass, M. Gillis, M. Roemer
Development Economics Ray D
The Handbook of Development Economics H.B.Chenery and T.N.Srinivasan
Factors in Economic Development Cairncross, A.K.
Foreign Aid Theory and Practice in Southern Asia Wolf, Jr. DC
Introduction to International Economics Snider, D.A.
7. Economy of Pakistan
Planning Experience of Pakistan : A critical evaluation of the strategy of economic
planning.
Agricultural Development in Pakistan : Changes in Agricultural Policies over plan
periods, Major Monetary and Fiscal measures to promote Agricultural development,
Green Revolution Strategy and its implications for growth and redistribution, Land
Reforms and changes in the Tenure System 1950—1980, Cooperative Farming.
Industrial Development in Pakistan: Early industrialization strategy, Creation of
Financial and Development Institutions, Major monetary and fiscal measures to
promote industrial development, Changing role of public sector over the plan periods,
Evaluation of Nationalisation Policy, Concentration of industrial income and wealth.
16
Role of Foreign Trade and Aid in economic development: Trends in Pakistan’s
Balance of Payments, Changes in direction of trade, Trends in Pakistan’s major
exports and imports, Causes of significant changes in the trends, the role of migration
and remittances in Pakistan’s economy, costs and benefits of Foreign Aid.
Privatization, denationalisation and deregulation, conceptual and operational
aspects. International comparisons.
Energy Issues facing Pakistan
Suggested Readings:
Under Development and Agrarian Structure in Pakistan Mahmood Hassan Khan
Studies in Economic Development with Special Reference Ghouse, A
to Pakistan
The Economics of Developing Countries Hynit, H.
The Economy of Pakistan Khawja Amjad Saeed
Issues in Pakistan Economy Akbar Zaidi
Economic Survey of Pakistan Ministry of Finance
8. English Literature
The paper will cover the study of English literature from 1798 to 1900 with special
reference to the works of W. Blake, Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, Byron, Charles
Lamb, Dickens, Tennyson, Robert Browning, Hardy, George Eliot, J.S. Mill, Ruskin
and Oscar Wilde.
Evidence of first-hand reading will be required. The paper will be designed to test not
only the candidates knowledge of the prescribed authors works but also their
understanding of the main literary trends during the period. Questions having a
bearing on the social and cultural back-ground of the Period also be included.
Suggested Readings:
A Guide to English Literature Ford, B. Pelican Series 7 Vols
History of English Literature Legouis and Cazamian
History of English Literature Hudson
The 19th Century Back Ground Basil Willey
20th Century Views Abrahams, M.H.
9. History of Pakistan and India
Arrival of European nations—decline and fall of Muslim Rule, contributions of Shah
Wali Ullah, Syed Ahmed Shaheed and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards regeneration of
the Muslim—Hindu reform movements and anti-Muslim role of Hindu leaders.
Constitutional reforms of the British Government and growth of the Political
Parties—Indian National Congress, All India Muslim league—
Partition of Bengal, Simla Deputation, Role of Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Nawab
Viqar-ul-Mulk, Syed Ameer Ali, the Agha Khan and other Muslim leaders, Lucknow
pact; Khilafat movement. Contribution of Maulana Muhammad Ali, Allama Iqbal,
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah for Muslim uplift and welfare.
17
Nehru report, Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen Points, Allama Iqbal’s Allahabad Address
1930, Round Table Conference. The Congress role in the provinces, Lahore
Resolution 1940, various missions and plans for the partition of the sub-continent.
Quaid-i-Azam as an organizer of the Muslim League Muslim leader and maker of
Pakistan.
Constitution making in Pakistan—various attempts at constitution making.
Difficulties in establishing a parliamentary democracy, imposition of various Martial
Laws, nature of Pakistan’s economy, development plans. Role of foreign aid.
Separation of East Pakistan, causes and effect : Pakistan and the world—major
powers, Islamic world, relations with India. Social and intellectual trends after 1947.
Contribution of Quaid-i-Azam as First Governor General and Liaquat Ali Khan as
first Prime Minister.
Suggested Readings:
Constitutional History of India Keith A.B.
Government & Politics in Pakistan Ahmad Mushtaq.
Pakistan & India G.W. Choudhry.
Political System in Pakistan Khalid Bin Saeed.
Pakistan the Formative Phase Khalid Bin Saeed.
Political Parties in Pakistan Vol. I & II Afzal, Rafique.
Two Nation theory Shafiq Ali Khan
The British Raj in India S. M. Burke,
SalimAl-Din Qureshi
10. History of USA
 Introduction: From ancient times to 1492, Advent of the Europeans to British
supremacy (1492-1606)
 USA as a British Colony (1606-1783)
 USA as an Independent Country (1783 – 1819)
 Expansion of USA: From 13 to 50 States (1820 – 1949)
 Constitution of the USA: Salient Features
 Civil War between the North and the East (1850 – 1869)
 Industrialization and its emergence as one of the world powers (1870 -1916)
 USA’s role in the Two World Wars (i. 1914 – 1918, ii. 1939 – 1945)
 Post 1945 world scenario & emergence of USA & USSR as the Two World
Powers.
 American Role in patronizing UNO and International Organizations 1945 –
2012
 American Role in Cold War and its emergence as the Sole World Power
(1945 – 1990) and Pakistan’s Role in this connection.
 International Concerns of USA: An Overview
 The War on Terror and the Role of Pakistan and USA (2001 – 2012)
 Global perceptions of the USA
18
Suggested Readings:
The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution Bailyn. Bernard, 1992
A Pocket History of the United States Commager, H. and Nevins, Allan, 1967
Painless American History Curt Lader, 2009
The Politically Incorrect Guide to American History E.Woods, Thomas Jr.,
2004
The Civil War: A Narrative Foote, Shelby, 1986
The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made it. Hofstadter. Richard, 1948
US-South Asian Relations 1784 – 1940: A History Perspective Iftikhar H. Malik, ed.,
2006
The Tragedy of Great Power Politics Mearsheimer, John, 2001
Enlightenment Revolution and the Birth of Modern Nation Nelson, Craig, Thomas Paine,
2006
The USA: 1917 – 1980 Smith, Nigel, 2006
American Colonies: The Selling of North America Taylor, Alan, 2002
White Over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro
1550 – 1812 Winthrop D.Jordan
The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents William. A. De Gregorio,
2005
A people’s History of the United States: 1492 to Present Zinn, Howard, 1980
11. Geography
Cultural Geography: Concept of culture in Geography; human races and their
distribution; major language families and their distribution; main religions
(Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) and their spheres of
influence; cultural diffusion; cultural regions of the world.
Environmental Geography: Human ecological adaptations; transformation of nature
by man; environmental degradation and conservation; ecosystems and their
management; global ecological imbalances–problems of pollution, global warming,
reduction in bio-diversity and depletion of forests.
Economic Geography:World economic development–measurement and problems;
world resources and their distribution; energy crisis; the limits to growth; world
agriculture– typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity;
food and nutrition problems; famine–causes, effects and remedies; human
development indicators; world industries–location patterns and problems; patterns of
world trade.
Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world
population; demographic attributes; causes and consequences of migration; concepts
of over–, under– and optimum population; carrying capacity of the physical
environment; problems associated with overpopulation; types and patterns of rural
settlements; hierarchy of urban settlements; concept of primate city and rank-size
rule; functional classification of towns; sphere of urban influence; rural-urban fringe;
satellite town; problems of urbanization.
19
Regional Geography: Regional geography of South Asia with special reference to
Pakistan under the following heads: Environmental setting (physical and climatic);
population, hydrology; irrigation; agriculture; natural vegetation; mineral and power
resources; major industries; trade and communication.
Suggested Readings
Population Geography Barrett, H
Hand Book of South Asia Bradnock, R.W.A,
Concepts and Regions in Geography Deblij, H.J.D.
The Integrated Human Geography Home, B
An Introduction to Economic Geography Khan F.K
Geography of Pakistan Khan F.K
The Geography of Economic Activity Thoman, Conklin and Yeats
Environmental Geography: Science,
Land Use and Earth Systems Marsh, W.M. and Grossa J.
12. International Relations
 The modern state system—history, basic features, evolving forms.
 International Relations as a field of study, Basic Approaches—Power, Balance of
Power, Imperialism, Nationalism.
 Interaction between states—diplomacy, International Law, international economic
and trade linkages—pressures in world politics.
 Evolution of the International System since 1815 (Congress of Vienna) Historical
Overview.
 World War I, II, Decolonization, Rise of the Third World Alliance System
(NATO, SEATO, CENTO, WARSAWPACT) Peaceful coexistence: Non-Aligned
Movement Theories of Peace and Security in Nuclear Age (Deterrence, Limited
war, Crisis Management etc). Detente.
 Foreign Policies of the Superpowers, major powers (USA, USSR, China) with
special reference to South Asia (India, Pakistan, etc.)
 Regional Security issues and crises (Afghanistan Crises, Iran—Iraq war, Palestine
problem, Aparthied and South Africa, Namibia, Polish crises, Euro communism,
Central American crises etc.)
Suggested Readings:
Issues in Global Politics Gavin Boyd
World Politics Since 1945 Peter Caluocorassi
International Relations : Peace or War Richard Rosecrance
Relations of Nations Frederick Hartman
Contending Theories of International Relations Tames Dougherty
13. Political Science
 Western Political Thought: Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Hobbes,
Locke, Rousseau, Bentham, Mill
 Muslim Political Thought: Al-Farabi, Al-Mawardi, Al-Ghazali, Ibn-i-Khaldun,
Iqbal
20
 The nature and emergence of Modern state system, Islamic concept of state.
 Political concepts, Sovereignty, Law, Liberty, Equality, Rights and Duties.
 Political Dynamics : Public Opinion, Propaganda, Political Parties, Pressure
Groups.
 Political Institutions : Legislature, Executive, Judiciary, Political Elites, Civil and
Military Bureaucracy.
 Forms of Government : Monarchy, Democracy, Dictatorship, Unitary and Federal,
Presidential and Parliamentary.
 Totalitarianism : Fascism, Communism.
 Local Self-govenrment : Theory and Practice with special reference to Pakistan.
The nature and emergence of Modern state system, Islamic concept of state.
Suggested Readings:
History of Muslim Philosophy M. M. Sharif
Comparative Politics : A World View Almond & Powell
Contemporary Political Analysis Garles Worth James
History of Political Theory George H. Sabine
Political Thought in Medieval Islam Rosenthal
Political Thought in perspective William Edenstein
Patterns of Governments Samuel H. Beer, Adem B. Ullam
Pakistan A Political Study Keith Callard
Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups V.O. Key Jr.
Modern Political Systems : Asia Roy, C. Macradis (Ed.)
Politics in Pakistan : Nature and Direction of Change Khalid Bin Sayeed
Reflection on Government Earnest Barker
The Political System of Pakistan Khalid B. Sayeed
14. Public Administration:
 Public Administration.—Its nature and scope, the role of Public Administration in
a modern Welfare State.
 Major Schools of thought in Administration.—Scientific Management Movement,
Human Relationists; Behavioural School; Systemic theory.
 Bureaucracy.—Concept of Bureaucracy, Theories of Bureaucracy, Ecology of
Bureaucracy; Bureaucracy of Pakistan as a Change Agent.
 Administrative Leadership.—Approaches to the study of Leadership, Forms of
Leadership, Leadership qualities.
 Administrative Accountability.—Internal and External Controls; Executive
Control, Legislative Control, Judicial Control, Ombudsman, Public Opinion and
Pressure Groups; Problems of Administrative Accountability in Pakistan.
 Planning.—Types of Plans, Planning Process; Principles of Planning, Planning
Machinery; the system of planning and programming in Pakistan, Planning
Machinery in Pakistan.
21
 Controlling and Co-Ordination.—Forms of Controls, Control Mechanism, the
process of Control, Principles of Controlling; Principles of Coordination;
Machinery for Coordination; Problems of Coordination in Public Administration
in Pakistan.
 Administration.—Elements of Financial Administration, Performance and
Programmed Budgeting, Capital Budget,Principles of Budgeting, Auditing and
Accounting.
An Introduction to the Public Administration E.N. Cladden
Administrative Behaviour Herbet, A Simon.
Bureaucracy : Modern Society Pebr, M. Blau.
Human Relations Administration Robert Dubir.
Introduction to the Study of Public Administration L.D. White
Public Administration for a Welfare State Paul Abbleby
Public Administration Theory and Practice Fesler, James W.
Research on the Bureaucracy of Pakistan Braibanti, Raplh
The Human Side of Enterprise Douglas McGregor.
The Bureaucracy of Pakistan Charles F.Kennedy
The above recommendations will not only ensure quality induction through the SOPE
but will also strengthen the governance and functioning of the Federal Secretariat which is
currently suffering from weak base, bad quality and delivery gaps at Section level.

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